Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) / Tropane Alkaloids (TA) Analysis

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Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA)

They are alkaloids that are naturally produced by plants as a defense mechanism against herbivores and are mainly in the chemical structure of pyrrolizidine. More than 660 PA and PA N-oxides have been identified in more than 6,000 plants, and about half of them exhibit hepatotoxicity. They are frequently found in plants of the families Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Fabaceae; They are present in at least one species in Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Lamiaceae. It is estimated that 3% of the world’s flowering plants contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Honey, cereals, milk, offal and eggs contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are hepatotoxic, meaning they damage the liver.PAs also cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease and liver cancer. PAs are tumorigenic. The disease associated with PA consumption is known as pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis.

Of concern is the health risk associated with the use of PA-containing herbs, especially in the West, borage leaves, comfrey and coltsfoot, and some Chinese herbs.

Some ruminant animals, such as cattle, show no changes in liver enzyme activities or any clinical signs of toxicity when fed plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.Still, studies conducted in Australia have shown that toxicity may occur.Sheep, goats, and cattle are much more resistant and tolerate much higher PA doses, thought to be due to extensive detoxification by rumen microbes that destroy PA. Men; They react more sensitively than women, fetuses, and children.

PA is also used as a defense mechanism for some organisms such as Utetheisa ornatrix. Utetheisa ornatrix caterpillars take these toxins from food plants and use them as a deterrent to predators. PAs protect them from most of their natural enemies. Toxins remain in these organisms even when they develop into adult moths and continue to protect them throughout adulthood.

 

Tropan alkaloids (TA)

It is a class of bicyclic alkaloids and secondary metabolites that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. Tropane alkaloids occur naturally in many members of the Solanaceae plant family. Some tropane alkaloids have pharmacological properties and can act as anticholinergic or stimulants.

Sia Analysis Laboratories

Toxin Analysis Laboratory

The services we provide in Sia Analysis Toxin Analysis Laboratory …

Analysis Name Product Group Analysis Time Accreditation
Total Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Echimidine (Em) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Echimidine-N-oxide (EmN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Erucifoline (Er) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Erucifoline-N-oxide (ErN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Europine (Eu) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Europine-N-oxide (EuN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Heliotrine (Hn) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Heliotrine-N-oxide (HnN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Intermedine (Im) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Sum of Intermedine-N-oxide and Indicine-N-oxide Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Jacobine (Jb) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Jacobine-N-oxide (JbN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Lasiocarpine (Lc) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Lasiocarpine-N-oxide (LcN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Lycopsamine and Indicine sum Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Lycopsamine-N-oxide (LaN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Monocrotaline (Mc) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Monocrotaline-N-oxide (McN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Retrorsine (Re) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Retrorsine-N-oxide (ReN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Senecionine (Sc) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Senecionine-N-oxide (ScN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Seneciphylline (Sp) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Seneciphylline-N-oxide (SpN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Senecivernine (Sv) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Senecivernine-N-oxide (SvN) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Senkirkine (Sk) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Trichodesmine (Td) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Analysis Name Product Group Analysis Time Accreditation
Toplam Tropane Alkaloids (TA) Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Aminobenztropine Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Nortopinonehidrochloride Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Tropane Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Tropine Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited
Tropinone Food / Feed 1-5 business days Accredited